The Vatican Observatory (Specola Vaticana) originally was established in Vatican City, but after the earthquake in the early 20th century, it was moved to Castel Gandolfo. This was also due to the fact that growing level of city lightning in Rome. It interferred with more detailed examinations of the sky.
The beginnings of the observatory relate to the pontificate of Gregory XIII, who ordered the construction of the tower for astronomical and meteorological observations. It is today known as the Tower of Winds or the Gregorian Observatory. From the 18th century onwards it also functioned as seismological observation facility. The Observatory relocated to Castel Gandolfo in the 1930s. Today, in addition to research activity, there are also conducted School of Astronomy for students from all over the world. Its largely supported by pope.