The Monte Cassino is a place where in 1944 a series of battles happened between the Allies and the Wehrmacht. They took place near a monastery of the same name located between Rome and Naples.
The battle of Monte Cassino is called The Battle for Rome. at that time, river valleys of Rapido and Liri, as well as the hill of Monte Cassino were strategic points for allied armies moving to the north from Naples. German-Italian armies built the so called Gustav Line, a vast line of fortifications, which was supposed to stop the Allies. Attempts of going around it brought no results. It led to the decision of attacking the hill of Monte Cassino. The battles were waged in four stages but it was the last one which gave the expected victory. Thanks to the bravery and devotion of Polish soldiers, Rome was taken by Americans. The best evidence of Polish heroism was the Polish flag and the standard of the 12th Regiment of Uhlans hanging on the walls of the monastery. As a sign of victory there was the St. Mary's Church bugle-call played. By order of the General Anders the British flag was hang not sooner than a couple of hours after the victory.
The battle of Monte Cassino is regarded as one of the most bloody and furious battles of the Second World war. During it, 924 of soldiers died, 345 is regarded as missing, whereas almost 3,000 were injured.
The Polish War Cemetery on the Monte Cassino hill was created at thye turn of the 1944 and 1945 years on the flat stretch between the Monte Cassino and the Monte Calvario, called also 'the Hill 593', the spot of the most fierce battle. It was constructed by soldiers who had taken part in the siege. In the graveyard there are 1072 fallen Poles buried, but also Belarusians, Ukrainians and Jews. The central point of the cemetery is occupied by the tomb of the General Anders, who right before his death in 1970, declared his last will of being buried among his soldiers.