The Alhambra the complete form of which was Calat Alhambra is a palace and fortress complex located in the Granada, Andalusia, Spain. It was constructed during the mid 14th century by the Moorish rulers of the Emirate of Granada in al-Andalus, occupying the top of the hill of the Assabica on the southeastern border of the city of Granada.
The Alhambra's Moorish palaces were built for the last Muslim Emirs in Spain and its court, of the Nasrid dynasty. After the Reconquista (reconquest) by the Reyes Católicos ("Catholic Monarchs") in 1492, some portions were used by the Christian rulers. The Palace of Charles V, built by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1527, was inserted in the Alhambra within the Nasrid fortifications. After being allowed to fall into disrepair for centuries, the Alhambra was "discovered" in the 19th century by European scholars and travelers, with restorations commencing. It is now one of Spain's major tourist attractions, exhibiting the country's most significant and well known Islamic architecture, together with 16th-century and later Christian building and garden interventions. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the inspiration for many songs and stories.
The Alhambra did not have a master plan for the total site design, so its overall layout is not orthogonal or organized. As a result of the site's many construction phases: from the original 9th century citadel, through the 14th century Muslim palaces, to the 16th century palace of Charles V; some buildings are at odd positioning to each other. The terrace or plateau where the Alhambra sits measures about 740 metres (2,430 ft) in length by 205 metres (670 ft) at its greatest width. It extends from west-northwest to east-southeast and covers an area of about 142,000 square metres (1,530,000 sq ft). The Alhambra's most westerly feature is the alcazaba (citadel), a strongly fortified position. The rest of the plateau comprises a number of Moorish palaces, enclosed by a fortified wall, with thirteen towers, some defensive and some providing vistas for the inhabitants. The river Darro passes through a ravine on the north and divides the plateau from the Albaicín district of Granada. Similarly, the Assabica valley, containing the Alhambra Park on the west and south, and, beyond this valley, the almost parallel ridge of Monte Mauror, separate it from the Antequeruela district. Another ravine separates it from the Generalife .
The decorations within the palaces typified the remains of Moorish dominion within Spain and ushered in the last great period of Andalusian art in Granada. With little of the Byzantine influence of contemporary Abassid architecture, artists endlessly reproduced the same forms and trends, creating a new style that developed over the course of the Nasrid Dynasty. The Nasrids used freely all the stylistic elements that had been created and developed during eight centuries of Muslim rule in the Peninsula, including the Calliphal horseshoe arch, the Almohad sebka (a grid of rhombuses), the Almoravid palm, and unique combinations of them, as well as innovations such as stilted arches and muqarnas (stalactite ceiling decorations). The isolation from the rest of Islam plus the commercial and political relationship with the Christian kingdoms also influenced building styles. After the Christian conquest of the city in 1492, the conquerors began to alter the Alhambra.
Over subsequent centuries the Moorish art was further damaged, and in 1812 some of the towers were destroyed by the French under Count Sebastiani. In 1821, an earthquake caused further damage. Restoration work was undertaken in 1828 by the architect José Contreras, endowed in 1830 by Ferdinand VII. After the death of Contreras in 1847, it was continued with fair success by his son Rafael (d. 1890) and his grandson. Designed to reflect the very beauty of Paradise itself, the Alhambra is made up of gardens, fountains, streams, a palace, and a mosque, all within an imposing fortress wall, flanked by 13 massive towers.
The literal translation of Alhambra, "red fortress," reflects the color of the red clay of the surroundings of which the fort is made. The buildings of the Alhambra were originally whitewashed ; however, the buildings seen today are reddish.
The Alhambra resembles many medieval Christian strongholds in its threefold arrangement as a castle, a palace and a residential annex for subordinates. The alcazaba or citadel, its oldest part, is built on the isolated and precipitous foreland which terminates the plateau on the northwest. That is all massive outer walls, towers and ramparts are left. On its watchtower, the Torre de la Vela , 25 m (85 ft) high, the flag of Ferdinand and Isabella was first raised, in token of the Spanish conquest of Granada on 2 January 1492. A turret containing a large bell was added in the 18th century and restored after being damaged by lightning in 1881. Beyond the Alcazaba is the palace of the Moorish rulers, or Alhambra properly so-called; and beyond this, again, is the Alhambra Alta (Upper Alhambra), originally tenanted by officials and courtiers.
||"największy" zabytek Grenady||Alhambra wraz z Generalife jest największą i najbardziej imponującą twierdzą obronną jaką dotychczas widziałem. Wygląd poszczególnych budynków jest bardzo oryginalny dzięki mieszance różnych stylów architektonicznych. Dostęp jest w miarę prosty - można albo wejść na wzgórze na piechotę lub jednym...||2011-12-14 15:13:53|
|Price||normal : 14.00 child : 0.00 (age <12) retired : 0.00 (age 65<) disabled : 0.00 (%) special cheap : 8.00 special : 25.00|
|Geographical coordinates||37.1769440, -3.5900000|
|Address||Granada, Calle Real|
|Construction dates||1232 - 1273|
|More information||official website|